How Printed Circuit Boards Are Made

Abbreviated as PCB, the printed circuit board is a thin plate which holds electronic components. PCBs can be found in most, if not all, electronic devices. It is a key component of electronics.

Through the years, developments in both the materials and production methods used have contributed to the advancement of the design of printed circuit boards. This article will discuss how PCBs are made.

Raw Materials

Printed Circuit BoardsPrinted circuit boards are composed of layers of different materials fused and laminated together using adhesives and heat. The substrate part of the PCB gives the board its thickness and rigidity. This layer is usually made of fiberglass, but other materials like epoxy can be used as well. The copper foil gives the board conductive surfaces and is where components are soldered or stamped. Depending on the design and purpose of the board, the copper can be on one side, both sides, or in multiple layers of the board. The copper areas are laminated with a thin layer of lead to prevent oxidation.

Making the substrate

The roll of woven fiber glass is unwound and then fed to the process station where it is coated with epoxy resin, either by spraying or dipping. The coated fiberglass is then passed through rollers until the desired thickness is achieved. This process also removes the excess resin.

The substrate is then semicured by passing it through an oven. The substrate is cut into panels after the curing.

The large panels are then stacked in layers, with the copper foil in between and then pressed together while being subjected to high temperature. This process fuses the copper foil to the substrate’s surface and also cures the resin fully.

Plating and drilling the holes

A few panels of the substrate are stacked, one on top of the other, and are held together to keep them from moving. Holes are then drilled according to the design or pattern desired. The holes are cleaned to remove extra material clinging from the edges.

The inner surfaces of the holes that are meant to conduct are coated with copper. The other holes are plugged to prevent them from being coated.

Etching the circuit pattern on the board

The printed patterns on printed circuit boards are created using either an additive or a subtractive process. Copper is added or plated onto the substrate’s surface according to the predetermined pattern. If using the additive process, the rest of the surface is left unplated. When using the subtractive process, the whole surface of the substrate is plated with the copper foil then the areas that are not part of the desired pattern are removed through etching. Tin-lead is added to the surface of the copper foil to protect it from oxidation.

Adding the contact fingers

Contact fingers are added to the substrate’s edge so that they connect with the circuit print. The area is masked and then plated. The plating materials applied (in order) are tin-lead, nickel, and gold.

Sealing and cutting the panels

The panels are sealed with epoxy which protects the circuit patterns from getting damaged while the electronic components are being attached. This is also the part where instructions, symbols, and other marking are added through silkscreen stencil.

When the stenciling process is finished, individual printed circuit boards are then cut from the panels. The edges of the boards are then smoothed.


If the PCBs will not be used immediately in production, they are packaged individually into protective plastic wraps (often the antistatic kind) and then stored or shipped.

Those are the basic steps in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.


Author Bio:

Printed circuit boards with Pcbnet are composed of layers of different materials fused and laminated together using adhesives and heat.

Psychological Life Hacks That Can be Implemented by Motivational Speakers (Part 1)

Life hacks are simple, practical tips to go about everyday mundane tasks that make use of available resources. Not surprisingly, there are also life hacks that utilize psychological concepts that usually fly over people’s heads. Motivational speakers are all about delivering life-changing pieces of advice and nuggets of wisdom to a mass of people. If they want to succeed in doing so, they must first master the art of conversation and oration.

There is a list of psychological life hacks that is being circulated throughout the Internet, and motivational speakers can use some of those life hacks in the list to further enhance their conversation and oration skills.

Keynote speaker“Pay attention to people’s feet.” The motions of the feet determine if a person is actually interested in continuing a conversation or even initiating a new one. If the feet do not move even an inch, that means the person(s) is/are either not interested in the conversation that is being initiated by the speaker or wants an ongoing conversation to end. For the motivational speaker, he/she should always watch out for the motions and directions of the feet of the audience. If their feet do not face towards the direction of the speaker, this can mean either one of two things: the motivational speeches the speaker gives are boring, or the audience is simply not interested in what the speaker says. The motions and directions of the feet are part of what is called body language.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon suggests that people are more likely to agree to do a task if they are asked to do something simpler first. Motivational speakers in general should not impose the heaviest of tasks on people too early. They should take it slowly and surely to earn the audience’s trust. Commitment can be achieved with flying colors if it is being done gradually. If the audience says no to an impossible task, the speakers should devise something less difficult on the fly.

Cognitive dissonance happens when a person encounters two conflicting sets of beliefs, ideas, or values. A motivational speaker must know this very well in order to reach his or her targeted message, especially if that message conflicts with the mindsets of some members of the audience. Cognitive dissonance can be used in a positive way by having the speaker ask the audience for a small favor. Once the dissonance disappears, the audience will gradually believe in what the speaker says.

Stage fright is one of the most common fears people can experience. Even the most veteran of motivational speakers can still experience this type of fright. One way to deal with stage fright is to chew a piece of gum moments before the delivery of the motivational speech. This is because one of the symptoms of stage fright is a dry mouth. Chewing gum helps avert the drying of the mouth and helps calm the mind before the big oration by soothing the nerves that reside beneath the teeth.

Another manifestation of body language that suggests the audience’s interest in the speeches the speaker delivers is how the members of the audience gaze. If they tilt their heads towards any direction other than the speaker’s, that means they are not interested in the speeches. The speakers themselves should also maintain proper gazes and should tilt their heads towards the directions of certain members of the audience only when necessary.

People will not remember what is being said, but they will remember what they have felt. To achieve this effect, the speaker must bring out everything in his/her speeches to not just drive the point across, but to strike them at their hearts. Be eloquent, but also be mindful of what the audience will feel.

Simple Benefits of Using The Best HCG Drops

The fitness world is full of different options that you can chase. You may not think that this is a big deal at first glance, but you will find that it is definitely something that is difficult to manage. Just look into weight loss options online, and you will find that there are hundreds if not thousands of sites that you can pursue in this regards. In fact, there’s so much information out there that you could find yourself in a complicated situation fast. Don’t let yourself chase the wrong things, focus on what actually works, such as the best hcg drops. These can help not only deliver the right option, but give you a helping hand that is going to manifest several benefits through and through. For instance, the following are just some of the benefits that you can think about when you pursue this option for a better movement forward.

Sustainable Weight Loss

best hcg dropsFirst and foremost, you will find that this is an option that is going to help you push the right envelope here. Sustainable weight loss is something that can manifest if you use your body’s own natural enzymes and elements that are pushed through the system. Every one has a metabolism. Some are slower than others, but it’s a naturally occurring thing that is a part of the body’s weight management system. Boosting this is as easy as looking into the best hcg drops. These elements help your body not only get the right nutrition, but also balance the right hormones overall. When you balance the right hormones in the body, you will find that sustainable weight loss is the benefit that comes through with relative ease.

Peace of Mind

One of the hardest things to quantify in regards to losing weight and getting healthier is the notion of peace of mind. Peace of mind is usually not a simple thing to get. Most people end up panicking when it comes to working with losing weight. Even if you use supplements, eat well, and exercise a great deal, you could still run into a wall. To reverse that, you will find that a boost will give you peace of mind. When your mind is at ease, you will feel a lot better about what you’re doing and you are guaranteed to see results. It’s something that most people don’t really understand at first glance, but when it hits, it’s hard to put a price tag on it.

Non Intrusive Help

Another benefit that you are going to find to be true when it comes to the best hcg drops, is that it doesn’t become a hassle or become intrusive at all. In fact, your overall push forward is going to be a positive thing because you will be living your normal life and not throwing it for a spin. Many individuals assume that you have to turn your life into chaos if you want to lose weight. That’s not true. With the help of the right supplements, you can work on the right pieces that are going to pay off in due time. If you’re serious about losing weight, and you want to do it naturally, you have to look at what works, and in today’s modern times, the thing that works includes hcg.

It’s easy to get caught up in the fitness world, but if you do your own research, you will find that there are easier ways to handle your body’s weight. Whether you want to lose a lot of weight, or you just want to tone up, work the drops into your daily routine, and see why so many people are vouching for these options moving forward.

Elegant Keepsakes with Custom Coins


Tokens of appreciation and medals given for honor and achievement are the usual purposes served by custom coins. When it comes to giving keepsakes for weddings, birthdays or any occasions, coins are usually overlooked. Coins that are uniquely designed to give as keepsakes will make your event more special and memorable. Here are some of the occasions that can be immortalized through custom coins.


custom coinsCommon keepsakes or favors for weddings are bags with some sweets inside, candles, matchboxes, and shot glasses to name a few. These are cute things to give away as wedding favors but you would surely want this event to be remembered for a long time with an extra special favor for your friends and family. Your wedding is one of the most important events in your life and custom coins will make it more awesome. It can be useful for the recipient in the shape of a key chain or a lapel pin. Print a 3D image of you and your spouse or have your favorite poem or quote engraved on the coin signed with your names. Include the date and location of the event as well.


Imagine the face of your baby immortalized on a coin. That is a great way to make the event much more memorable. A personalized coin is also a great idea as a gift for the child and his or her parents. It is something that is worth keeping.

Family Reunions

While a group picture in your physical or online album will surely make a family reunion memorable, giving out coins as keepsakes will make it more of an interesting and special event. Make the shape and color of your custom coins different each year so that relatives will always look forward to attending the occasion. You can also engrave the name of a family member on each coin to make it more personal.

Easter Egg Hunting

Make children more excited in looking for those hidden eggs by having them look for those with a coin inside. The more eggs with coins they find, the higher the prize. It will surely be more fun hunting for more than just candies or any sweet goodies inside the eggs. Children will feel more adventurous in hunting with that twist in the game. If you are hosting the egg hunt, you may also want to give customized coins to all participants as tokens of appreciation for making the event a success.


This can be made more fun with coins as keepsakes. You can also have a specially made coin that will serve as a small medallion for winning a party game that you planned for the event. You can engrave the date and time and even the location on the flip side of the coin.


The silver or golden anniversary is a milestone in a couples’ life. If you are the one celebrating this event, coins are best favor you can give to mark this very special event. If you are attending one, a coin with your personal message engraved on it will be very much appreciated.

Custom coins can come in any shape that you want. You can stick with the usual rounded shape or let your imagination run wild to create odd-shaped coins that will be unique for your special occasion. You can choose from a variety of base metals that will be used as well as the colors or finishing that you want. Turn coins into bracelets for female attendees and pins or key chains for male attendees. Create the custom look and feel that you want for your coin. It’s your party and you can customize your coin any way you want.

Where and why to Buy Prohormones?

Prohormones are compounds that enable the body to produce anabolic steroids. These are legal substances because the conversion of steroids normally takes place in your body, and the body limits the amount it can produce. The conversion occurs in the liver and the enzymes found in the body should be present in order for the process to happen. The prohormones enhance the existing hormones, as compared to steroids that add hormones in the body. It is basically a variety of testosterone.

It is important for prohormones to complete the cycle correctly and limit the amount of time it takes. Luckily, even in small amount it can provide the results that you want in muscle gain. Workouts and training are needed for the prohormones to be transformed correctly. Unluckily without the workout there is a possibility the prohormones will be converted into estrogen, which will have an opposite effect. There are some prohormones with added compounds like estrogen blockers as well as built-in liver support. Reducing caloric intake and clean diet are suggested for better results on prohormones.

uniquemicalsAthletes and body builders buy prohormones to increase muscle mass, and increase the strength and size as fast as possible. It also can help in faster recovery time from workouts and maintaining endurance if needed. The substance can definitely provide results and are safe for women in small amount. Those with wasting diseases can achieve great results after taking prohormones. It also helps them maintain their normal body weight. Older men buy prohormones for hormone replacement therapy purpose.

There are some side effects involved in taking prohormones. The effects will depend on the user and the type of prohormone. Some of the common side effects are prostate swelling, acne, or hair loss, but are minimal. It is important for some individuals to be careful. The prohormone cycle would last around 30 days. For others it is suggested that a liver support supplement is taken to make sure they will achieve the best results of conversion. The average shelf life of the substance is 2 to 3 years.

Once the prohormone cycle is completed, it will leave the body right away. Essentially, your body will lose strength and size and gain fat post cycle. This is the reason why a Post Cycle Therapy is recommended. In order for the body to get back to pre-cycle quality, a PCT will help to recover testosterone, promote strength, estrogen inhibition, minimize fat gain and cortisol and restore.

After a prohormone cycle is completed, the compound immediately begins to leave the body. Essentially your body is ready to lose size and strength and gain fat post cycle. This is why a Post Cycle Therapy is highly recommended.

A PCT is needed to get your body back to the pre-cycle quality. This will help with testosterone recovery, promoting strength,cortisol, estrogen inhibition, minimizing fat gain and restoring overall health. Before starting with another prohormone, you should complete the full post cycle therapy.

Prohormones for Sale

You can buy prohormones online, make sure that you are dealing with a reliable source. They are also sold at many drug stores. It is recommended that you consult your doctor before making a purchase to make sure that you will take the right amount of prohormones. To achieve the result that you want, you should take it in a cycle. For others a liver support supplement is needed for the conversion of prohormones to anabolic steroids. Not all have the liver enzyme needed. Prohormones are broken down into classes. Non-methylated and with less side effects belongs to Class 1. Class 2 is methylated and requires a liver support supplement. The prohormones that belongs to Class 3 and Class 4 are those that have completed the cycles and are accustomed to them already, to avoid harmful side effects.

The most important thing that you need to keep in mind before you buy prohormones is that prohormones is not an ordinary substance that you have to take any time you want. It requires the right amount and time to achieve the result that you want.

Why Lanyards are Becoming Popular

If you are a businessman who is looking for something that can represent your company, then you should take advantage of the popularity of lanyards. You can use them as giveaways to your loyal clients. Companies have already used pens, shirts, caps, mugs and calendars but these are all common and boring items nowadays. You can have something more colorful and fun that you can use every day.

lanyardsA lanyard is one of the simplest, trendiest and most useful items that you can have as a promotional and corporate giveaway. It can serve as a camera strap, a key strap, the most common identification card lace and a lot more. It is very easy to design and reproduce. It can be one perfect item that you can use as a gift or as a promotional item to boost your business and make your brand known to your customers.

Typically, corporate gifts include items such as mugs, pens, calendars and coveralls. These are the usual items that you can commonly see in an office. Some clients already find them a bit boring and common. On the other hand, if you consider lanyards as giveaways, they can also be used in the office as key straps and ID laces. Another great thing about having these cords is that people can use them around their neck.

As a businessman, you should produce a lanyard with the most colorful and eye catching design that can best represent your company or organization. You can give a modern twist to the more conventional corporate giveaway items. And the best thing about this item is that people of all ages will surely enjoy having one of these cords that they can wear almost at any time and place.

The most common promotional items include shirts and caps that are made to be worn by employees. These items can serve as a part of your marketing and advertising strategy since they include logos that anyone can easily see. People will be more familiar with you brand, which is what you need in order to start gaining a loyal client base. A lot of them will consider transacting with a particular business simply because they are already family with the company. However, if you make use of a lanyard, anyone can see it almost every day especially if you use it as an identification card lace or a key strap. Whoever sees this item will automatically identify the brand or company that the cord represents.

Lanyards come in various colors, sizes and designs. You can also have the option to print on both sides of the fabric. Usually, a lanyard has an average of thirty six inches. You will have a total of seventy inches if you choose to print on both sides. You can incorporate your company logo and name, an attractive and interesting slogan or theme as well as your contact information in order to get your products or services known to a lot of people.

Look for a reliable supplier and printing company to produce lanyards that can be used as corporate giveaways or as promotional items. You can create your own design with your choice of colors to show them and see if they can meet your requirements. You know that these items can be cost-effective once manufactured in bulk. They can have an excellent display value with colorful and attractive designs while being useful to people who wear them almost every day. Just make sure that they are seen as often as possible and the message should be clear enough so that people will be more familiar with your brand or company.